Bilateral relation between Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and Republic of India are very strong and its origin can be traced back in 305 BC Maurya Empire. Afghanistan and India has entered in to strategic partnership agreement in 2011. India has been the biggest regional donor on humanitarian grounds to Afghanistan since 2001. India has played a pivotal role to make India member of SAARC. The foreign relations can be seen in shape of 4 consulates and training of civil servants and diplomats by Indian Embassy’s.
- India & Pakistan Strategic aims in Afghanistan before and after 9/11. The tug of war between India and Pakistan has been in shape of Mujahedeen vs. Soviet Union Military presence and Later Democratic republic of Afghanistan vs Taliban, but after the episode of 9/11 Pakistan had to change its standing against the obvious choice of lesser Evil. Thence India has played smart on NAM stance and came into play after US control over Afghanistan. Pakistan negated Soviet plans via US Operation Cyclone in order counter Indo Soviet Strategic nexuses on its Eastern Border by favouring US in cold war. India as per Chanikiya Policy i.e., “Keep strained relations with neighbours and enjoy good relations with your neighbours neighbours”; which can be seen from the India’s Foreign Policy and relations with neighbouring countries. India pursues a stratagem of close collaboration in order to augment its standing as a regional power and contain its adversary Pakistan; India believes Pakistan is supporting Islamic militants in Kashmir and other parts of India, through covert operations by ISI. Pakistan claims that the Indian intelligence agency RAW is carrying out covert operations to malign Pakistan and India is training, supporting and arming insurgents across the border and in Baluchistan. Both countries allegedly rejected the claims.
- Indian’s Stratagem on Eastern & Western Borders. One of the India’s strongest stance for Bilateral relations with Afghanistan was to divert Pakistan’s attention from Eastern borders by bolstering LIC environment by misbalancing Internal law and order situation and committing the men in barracks, moreover carry out covert operations from the consulates by RAW and expediting Pakistan’s western borders. Western border of Pak-Afghan is the longest boundary amongst boundaries shared by Pakistan with its neighboring countries, which is not protected or looked after like Eastern border. Pakistan needs a lot of efforts to cover its Western border which has been fenced at noodle points but not enough to stop the Taliban traffic completely. More security leads to extra burden on defense budget and country’s economy which has been weakened by internal law and order situation, as private and International investors have shifted and new investor’s don’t feel secure due to energy crises and internal situation of Pakistan.
- Water War on Eastern & Western Borders. India has moved cleverly by giving strategic blows in shape of water wars and cleverly expediting the clauses of IBWT, which turned against Pakistan despite Pakistan’s representation against India stance to World Bank. The energy crises and irrigation problems were cleverly sowed to bring Pakistan on India’s terms. Moreover India has been giving Afghan government a survey report to build Dams and irrigation canals on Kabul River, depriving Pakistan water source on western borders.
- Indians Tactical measures for strategic Road Map In Afghanistan. In 2009 Indian Army’s Border Roads Organization built a major road in the Distant Afghan province of Nimroz, connecting Delaram to Zaranj. The road has provided a feasible alternative route for duty free movement of goods through the Chabahar port in Iran to Afghanistan. One of the aim of India’s stratagem in Afghanistan is to build up trade routes that bypass Pakistan, in order to divert Afghan economy’s dependency on Pakistan, thence expediting own interest. Moreover India wants to tap the energy sources of CARs and 2 trillion untapped reserves of Afghanistan (in a report by UN). India has donated US$ 650–750 million for humanitarian and economic aid, making India the largest regional donor for aid for Afghanistan. India’s help and alliance has even provided support to rebuilding of air links despite the episode of hijacking of Indian Airline Flight 814. The manufacture of Hydal Power plants on Kabul river as discussed above and investing in health sector by sending own doctors and training staff for Medical education and establishing universities. India is helping to train Afghan civil servants, diplomats and police, which are part of puppet government by Hamid Karazai, as ISAF plans to withdraw in 2014 Afghanistan has shown concern that its staff is not trained to the mark where they can face the rise of Taliban, India extended its help to train the police by setting step and establishing a sizeable force to threat Pakistan in shape of Training battalions, for which Pakistan strongly opposed Afghanistan not to take any initiative that shall give door way to Indian Army. India also seeks the development of supply lines of electricity, oil and natural gas, through CARs (Central Asian Republics). Giving scholarships and admission to Afghan youth in their universities to fold the future leadership in their favor.
- Afghanistan’s Stance towards Pakistan & India for strategic ties.
- Pakistan. The present regime has grievances of providing safe havens to Taliban in FATA and not controlling the cross border terrorism, moreover the Taliban support in past does not make Pakistan as obvious option for strategic ties. There have been skirmishes on Pak Afghan border because of cross border terrorism; both sides blame each other for it. However Pakistan has always extended brotherly attitude in form of refugee at time of National crises and wars of 1979 and 1990. The NATO route was given without tariffs for supply of goods to ISAF.
- India. 3 MOUs have been signed in different sectors, and investment of worth 2 Billion $ has been signed between India and Afghanistan. India has tapped the fear of Afghanistan i.e. withdrawal of ISAF in 2014 and Pakistan’s stance in past for Taliban by providing Military trg and security to Afghan government after ISAF withdrawal. Both sides will launch Partnership Council, topmost body to implement the Strategic Partnership Pact in May,2012
- Afghanistan. Present Afghan regiem stance can be summed up by Hamid Karzai’s speech during his visit to India, Karzai told the media that “This strategic partnership is not directed against any country. This strategic partnership is to support Afghanistan.” He also stated that “Pakistan is our twin brother, India is a great friend. The agreement we signed with our friend will not affect our brother.” He also added that “However, our engagement with Islamabad has unfortunately not yet yielded the result that we want.”